© March 2000 by Neil Bauman, Ph.D.
Question: I am looking for information on lip-reading—it’s accuracy and associated difficulties. I understand that lip-reading
really is very hard and not particularly accurate.—R. F.
Answer: Speechreading is
a fascinating subject. Lip-reading is the old term for what we now more accurately call speechreading.
You are right. Speechreading is neither easy nor accurate—but it is indispensable
to me and multitudes of hard of hearing people. We use it every day in order to effectively communicate with others.
I am a "native" speechreader, having had to speechread from the
day I was born. Also, I am one of the few people that are specifically trained to be speechreading instructors.
What I'll be saying comes from my 50+ years of speechreading every day and from my experience teaching speechreading
and hearing loss coping skills to others.
Speechreading is not normally used by itself. It is just one of three hearing
loss coping skills we use to communicate effectively. The other two are wearing hearing aids/using assistive listening
devices and practicing effective coping strategies.
Combining speechreading with wearing hearing aids is very important. In a
study at the University of Manchester researchers found that hard of hearing people just using their residual hearing
understood 21 percent of speech. If they combined their residual hearing with either a hearing aid or with
speechreading, they could understand 64 percent of speech. This is a significant improvement. However, if
they used their residual hearing and both hearing aids and speechreading, their speech comprehension soared to 90 percent.
English is not a particularly easy language to speechread. Some languages
are much easier (and some are even harder). The best estimates are that 30% to 35% of English sounds can be speechread.
In order for a sound to be easily speechread, it must be formed on the lips and/or in the front of the mouth.
Unfortunately for us, we form many English sounds in the middle of our mouths.
Others come from the back of our mouths and even in our throats. These latter are absolutely impossible to speechread.
As a result, a perfect speechreader only would be able to speechread about
one third of what is said. They guess at the rest, taking into consideration their understanding of the spoken
language, the body language of the speaker and the subject under discussion. Some people are remarkably good at
guessing but no one is perfect.
I know some remarkable speechreaders. Hilda is one of them. She is totally
deaf but you'd never know it from the way she seems to understand speech. She is just awesome! However, even the
best of speechreaders can lose it. For example, one day we were at a seminar together. The speaker chose as her
topic, things she admired about each speechreading instructor present. She mentioned Hilda first. When Hilda saw
her name on the speaker's lips it so totally threw her that she wasn't able to speechread a single thing from that
speech! Now if that happens to the best--think of what it does for the rest of us.
Another thing you should know about speechreading is that during normal speech,
we make approximately 13 to 15 speech movements per second. However, our eyes can only pick up 8 or 9 of these
movements. Thus it is impossible to speechread perfectly. If a person is talking at a normal rate, we will miss
between one quarter and one half of what he says just because our brains can't keep up. It sure helps us if the
speaker talks more slowly or leaves long pauses to give our brains a chance to catch up.
In order for speechreading to be effective we have to know the subject being
discussed. Hearing people tell us to get the meaning from the context. This only works when we know the context.
What happens when we can't hear enough to figure out the context? Let me give you an example.
Many words in English look the same on a speaker's lips but have different
sounds. We call these words homophenes. When we can't hear the sounds, we cannot tell these words apart.
Let's say I approach a group of hunters in the fall and I see the word "shoot"
on one person’s lips. I assume they are talking about hunting or shooting and I chime in with something in like
They look at me surprised/perplexed/bemused. My remarks were totally off
the wall to them. Why? They were talking about their footwear, not about hunting! You see, the words "shoot,"
"shoes," "chews," "juice," "June" and "Jews" look exactly the
same on a person’s lips. I thought I knew the context from their garb and the words I saw, but I would have had
it completely wrong.
There are numerous homophenes in English. Words as different as "queen"
and "white" look the same on a person's lips. So do the three words in the sentence, "Buy my pie."
It becomes obvious that trying to figure out which word is the right one
is very difficult if you don’t know ahead of time what the context is. It should be equally obvious now that the
estimate of up to 35% of English words being easy to speechread is overstated since many of these words are ambiguous
Some people are very easy to speechread. They are a pleasure to talk to.
Thank God for these people! However, be aware that about 10% of the population move their lips in such a way that
it is absolutely impossible
to speechread even one word they say. Most people fall somewhere in between. When you do well speechreading one
person, your family/friends/co-workers might think that you can do that with anyone. This is just not true.
Another factor to consider is that we are not all created equal in our ability
to speechread. I have found that some people just do not seem to be able to speechread at all. Studies show that
only 23% of hard of hearing people become effective speechreaders. That means that a whopping 77% need to use other
means of coping along with using speechreading.
It is interesting (but not fair) that women on the average are much better
speechreaders than men. This is just the way it is. We men have to struggle much more than the fairer sex, yet
it is men that lose their hearing sooner and more severely than women. I am one of the best male speechreaders
I know, but there are women that make me look like I was still in kindergarten in speechreading.
A downside of speechreading, and one that is not obvious, is that it is very
tiring, especially with someone who is hard to speechread in the first place. Fatigue is the constant companion
of most hard of hearing people whether they realise it or not. Speechreading takes enormous concentration. We have
to work very hard to understand what is being said. We must follow every lip movement, every facial expression,
every gesture, to try to find meaning in what you are saying. We cannot relax our eyes for even a moment and have
a nice easy conversation like people with normal hearing can.
Speechreading is not merely a matter of just watching speech movements, but
includes considerable mental effort in making sense from an incompletely perceived message. In fact, I’ve heard
our brains have to work five times as hard to understand speech as do those of people with normal hearing. In the
course of a day, our brains have done as much mental gymnastics as a person with normal hearing does in a whole
week! No wonder we get tired so fast!
Another downside of speechreading is that we spend so much of our time just
trying to understand the words
the person is saying that we can easily miss the meaning they are trying to communicate.
In spite of its many limitations, speechreading is an incredible gift to
those of us who are hard of hearing. You may be surprised to know that we can sometimes speechread accents and
tell where a person comes from without hearing a sound! It sure throws people when a deaf person says, "I
can’t hear a sound, but you are speaking with an Australian accent" or whatever.
Speechreading sure comes in handy for communicating through closed windows,
from across noisy rooms or when you want to talk with someone in a "quiet zone."
Many of us hard of hearing people need to use speechreading all the time
in our day to day interactions with other people. I, for one, would never want to be without it!
If you are interested in learning to speechread better, an excellent
speechreading program is available called "Seeing and Hearing Speech." The beauty of this
program is that you can go at your
own speed in the privacy of your own home.
Click here now to learn more about
this excellent speechreading program or to order the Seeing and Hearing Speech
CD and watch your speechreading skills improve.